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Stamping is a forming process that relies on presses and dies to apply external forces to plates, strips, pipes and profiles to produce plastic deformation or separation to obtain a workpiece of the desired shape and size (stamping). Stamping and forging are both plastic processing (or pressure processing) and are collectively called forging.
Stamped parts are produced by using the power of conventional or specialized stamping equipment to deform the sheet directly in the die to obtain parts of a certain shape, size and performance. The sheet, the die and the equipment are the three elements of the stamping process. Stamping is a cold deformation method of metal processing. Therefore, it is called cold stamping or sheet metal stamping, or stamping for short. It is one of the main methods of metal plasticity processing (or pressure processing), and also belongs to the material forming engineering technology.
Stamping its application is mainly reflected in the field of industrial manufacturing, modern manufacturing industry is everywhere its figure, its application is very wide, the following is a brief description of its specific application areas.
1. For the application of the automotive industry. Mainly to deep drawing, this part is mainly concentrated in the automobile factory, tractor factory, aircraft manufacturing plant and other enterprises.
2. The application of precision auto parts and other industry parts. Mainly punching and shearing. Many of the enterprises in this sector are classified in the scale parts factory, there are also some independent stamping plants.
3. Electrical parts stamping plant. This type of factory is a new industry, following the development of electrical appliances, and the rise of this sector of the factory is mainly concentrated in the southern region of China.
4. Daily necessities of stamping factory. Doing some handicrafts, tableware, etc., these factories have gradually developed in recent years.
5. Household electrical appliances parts stamping enterprises. These factories were widely developed after the development of household appliances, and most of them are located in the household appliance enterprises.
6. CNC machined parts. Such as the stamping of aviation parts, the application in these fields is generally in some large enterprises.
First of all, the performance index of raw materials for stamping: because raw materials for stamping are quite closely related to stamping production, the quality of materials will directly affect the design of stamping process, the quality of stamping parts, the service life of products and the cost of stamping parts. Therefore, in order to produce good stamping parts stably, the raw materials for stamping should meet certain performance index requirements, so as to adapt to the deformation requirements in the stamping process.
Secondly, the basic requirements of raw materials for stamping: the commonly used metal materials for stamping are mainly steel, aluminum and aluminum alloy, copper and copper alloy, which should have good stamping performance, surface quality and material thickness tolerance from the viewpoint of material stamping processability.
The stamping process can be roughly divided into two categories: separation process and forming process (also divided into bending, drawing and forming).
The separation process is to separate the stamped parts from the blank along a certain contour line during the stamping process, and the quality of the separated section of the stamped parts should also meet certain requirements; the forming process is to make the plastic deformation of the stamped blank occur without destroying it and transform it into the required shape of the finished product, which should also meet the requirements in terms of dimensional tolerance.
There are two types of stamping, cold stamping and hot stamping, according to the temperature situation at the time of stamping. This depends on the strength, plasticity, thickness, degree of deformation and equipment capacity of the material, etc. The original heat treatment state of the material and the end use conditions should also be considered.
1. Cold stamping metal processing at room temperature is generally applicable to blanks with thickness less than 4mm. The advantages are no heating, no oxidation, good surface quality, easy operation and low cost. The disadvantage is that there is work hardening, which in severe cases causes the metal to lose its ability to deform further. Cold stamping requires uniform thickness of the billet with small fluctuation range and a smooth, spotless and scratch-free surface.
2. Hot stamping is a stamping processing method that heats the metal to a certain temperature range. The advantages are that it can eliminate internal stress, avoid work hardening, increase plasticity of material, reduce deformation resistance, and reduce power consumption of equipment.